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Guides & Help

APA Citation Guide

This citation guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) and should be used for papers in the Counseling classes at Covenant Theological Seminary.

This guide provides explanations and examples for most citation situations you will encounter. Pay close attention to details such as italicization, capitalization, commas, and spacing. More questions? Visit the APA’s style website ( or make an appointment with a Scribe consultant.

Quick Tips

All quoted, paraphrased, or summarized information (i.e. any thoughts that are not your own) must be cited in the text and in a concluding reference list. In an APA paper, footnotes are used for “asides” or clarifying information, not citations.

In-text citations need:

  • the author’s or authors’ last name(s),
  • the year, and
  • when possible, specific page numbers.


Title Case Capitalization (for use in your text)

Capitalize the first word of a title, the first word of a subtitle, major words, and words 4+ letters long.

It’s Still Greek to Me: An Easy-to-Understand Guide to Intermediate Greek.

Sentence Case Capitalization (for use in reference lists)

Capitalize the first word of a title, the first word of a subtitle, and proper nouns.

It’s still Greek to me: An easy-to-understand guide to intermediate Greek.

Internet Sources

  • When you cite an online source, look for a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI is a durable link your reader can use to return to your source. Include the DOI in your reference list citation.
  • Make the DOI into a clickable hyperlink by adding the DOI to the end of the web address
  • If there is no DOI, use a URL, unless you accessed the source through a database that requires a login.
  • Do not add periods to the end of DOIs or URLs.
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